table1  
Table 1. Generic estimates of expected environmental concentrations (EECs) for non-target organisms exposed to transgenic proteins via cultivation of GM crops.
Non-target organism type Worst-case EEC Realistic EEC Comments
Above-ground arthropod Highest mean concentration1 of the transgenic protein in leaf tissue or pollen 0.2 X the worst-case EEC2 Several studies3 have shown that the concentration of transgenic protein in most herbivores is <10% that of the GM crop on which they are feeding.
Soil invertebrate Highest mean concentration of the transgenic protein in roots Concentration of the transgenic protein if whole plants were ploughed into soil to a depth of 15cm immediately before harvest The amount of transgenic protein per hectare is calculated by multiplying the whole plant concentration by the mass of a plant and the number of plants per hectare. The mass of one hectare of soil to a depth of 15 cm is ca. 2.25 x 109 g .
Pollinator Highest mean concentration of the transgenic protein in pollen Average concentration of the transgenic protein in pollen multiplied by the proportion of the crop pollen in the diet For maize, 50% pollen is a reasonably conservative assumption4; for cotton, a higher proportion may be necessary.
Aquatic organisms Highest mean concentration of the transgenic protein in pollen multiplied by the predicted worst-case density of pollen in a pond 2 m deep adjacent to field As for worst-case, but use average concentration of protein and assume 50% loss of protein through degradation and transport and settling of pollen Maize produces up to 315x109 pollen grains per hectare during anthesis; 1 mg of maize pollen contains approximately 2,500 pollen grains5. Assume aquatic exposure to cotton is minimal as pollen is not dispersed by wind6.
Farmed fish Concentration of protein detected in feed made from maximum proportion of grain that gives a nutritious diet Multiply the worst-case EEC by the maximum predicted proportion of the product in the feed chain Testing above the worst-case EEC is not possible if the worst-case EEC is estimated from the feed used in the hazard study.
Wild mammals Worst-case daily dietary dose via a diet containing 100% seeds with highest mean concentration of transgenic protein As for worst-case, but use average concentration of transgenic protein in seeds and realistic proportion of crop seed in diet Formula for daily dietary dose is (FIR ¸ bw) x C: FIR is daily food intake rate, bw is body weight and C is the concentration of the transgenic protein in the diet. Estimates of FIR/bw for various mammalian diets are in the literature7.
Wild birds As for wild mammals As for wild mammals Estimates of FIR/bw for various avian diets are in the literature7.
1The mean concentration of transgenic protein in GM plants at the developmental stage in which expression is highest
2Raybould et al. 2007
3E.g., Head et al. 2001; Raps et al. 2001; Dutton et al. 2002; Howald et al. 2002; Obrist et al. 2005; Obrist et al. 2006a; Obrist et al. 2006b; Torres et al. 2006
4Babendreier et al. 2004
5Westgate et al. 2003; Depuis et al. 1987
6E.g., Khan & Afzal 1950; Thies 1953; Sidhu & Singh 1961; Llewelyn & Fitt 1996
7Crocker et al. 2002


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